Porous Laser-Scribed Graphene Electrodes Modified with Zwitterionic Moieties: A Strategy for Antibiofouling and Low-Impedance Interfaces

by A. C. Zambrano, L. M. D. Loiola, A. Bukhamsin, R. Górecki, G. Harrison, V. Mani, S. Fatayer, S. P. Nunes, K. N. Salama
Journal Article Year: 2024 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1021/acsami.3c15849

Extra Information

ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces


Laser-scribed graphene electrodes (LSGEs) are promising platforms for the development of electrochemical biosensors for point-of-care settings and continuous monitoring and wearable applications. However, the frequent occurrence of biofouling drastically reduces the sensitivity and selectivity of these devices, hampering their sensing performance. Herein, we describe a versatile, low-impedance, and robust antibiofouling interface based on sulfobetaine-zwitterionic moieties. The interface induces the formation of a hydration layer and exerts electrostatic repulsion, protecting the electrode surface from the nonspecific adsorption of various biofouling agents. We demonstrate through electrochemical and microscopy techniques that the modified electrode exhibits outstanding antifouling properties, preserving more than 90% of the original signal after 24 h of exposure to bovine serum albumin protein, HeLa cells, and Escherichia coli bacteria. The promising performance of this antifouling strategy suggests that it is a viable option for prolonging the lifetime of LSGEs-based sensors when operating on complex biological systems.


Laser-scribed graphene Zwitterionic Antibiofouling Biosensors Point-of-care diagnostic